Women students form the 1st female literary society, named for WIlliam Marsh Rice's 2nd wife, Elizabeth Baldwin Rice. Members discuss municipal and sociological problems to prepare them for citizenship, although they cannot yet vote. Stockton Axson, popular English professor and brother-in-law of President Woodrow Wilson, sponsors the group.
Many literary societies for men and women follow. Before the college system is established, students identify with these social groups that are open to all students. These groups participate in debates and study women's suffrage, penal reforms, literature and opera.